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考研英语被动语态翻译_考研英语冲刺阶段怎么复习

文章来源:江西文都教育

摘要:在命制试题过程中,选用的文章大多是正式的文体。这类文章的特点之一是被动句很多,因为这类文章客观性很强,而被动语态是使文章客观化的手段之一。不但如此,在英语正式文体中还有其他表示被动的方法,如在名词后加-ee表示动作的承受者(如trainee, employee, addressee, payee 分别表示受训者,受雇者,收件人,收款人);形容词以 -able、-ible结尾和由过去分词转换的形容词,大多含有被动意义,如:visible stars(看得见的星星),navigable rivers(可通航的海湾)等等。介词短语,过去分词短语有时也能表示被动意义。

汉语中的被动句不占优势。英文中大部分的被动句都可以译为汉语的主动句,只有在强调被动意义时才使用被动句。但是在汉语的主动句中,有的在逻辑上是被动句,如:"文章写完了"。在这样的句子中,主语不是谓语的动作施行者,而是承受者。汉译时应该灵活采取相应的形式。此外,汉语本身特有一些表示被动的语言手段可以加以利用。为了使译文符合汉语习惯,翻译被动句时,常常可以用以下几种方法:

(1)被动句的主语仍译为主动句的主语。

The car was severely damaged beyond any means of repair while the driver was safe and sound.

译文:汽车损坏严重,已无法修理,而驾车者却安然无恙。

The discovery is highly appreciated in the circle of science.

译文:此项发现得到科学界的高度评价。(或:科学界对此项发现给予高度评价。)

(2)将被动句译成主动句,有时外加泛指人称代词"人们","有人","大家","我们"做主语。

Rubber is found to be a good isolating material.

译文:人们发现,橡胶是一种良好的绝缘材料。

The area has been marked out for building more hotels.

译文:人们划出这块地区用于建造更多的旅店。

(3)把by 后动作的执行者做主语,英文原句中的主语做宾语。

The result of the invention of the steam engine was that human power was replaced by mechanical power.

译文:蒸汽机发明的结果是机械力代替了人力。

What measures have been or are being adopted by the government to reduce air pollution?

译文:政府已经采取或正在采取哪些措施去降低空气的污染程度呢?

(4)译成汉语中的无主句。

若根据上下文或特定情景,对行为主体一目了然,或者出于礼貌和婉转起见,可以采用这种译法。

The amount of carbon monoxide that an engine gives off can be reduced by special devices designed to make the engine burn the fuel more efficiently.

译文:使发动机更有效地燃烧燃料而设计的特殊装置可以降低发动机一氧化碳的排放量。

Additional International Standards may be added to the series in the future.

译文:将来还可能对本系列标准增加若干项国际标准。

(5)改译成汉语的判断句,即带表语的主动句。

常见的被动式句型译法:

It cannot be denied that...不可否认

It has been illustrated that...据说明;据图示;图中表示

It has been proved that...已经证明

It is(usually) considered that...据(通常)估计;人们(通常)认为

It is assumed that...假定

It is believed that...大家相信

It is alleged that...据称

It is demonstrated that...已经证明,文中(图中)表明

It is estimated that...据估计

It is expected that...人们希望

It is found that...据发现;人们认为

It is generally agreed/recognized that...人们通常认为/承认

It is hoped/still to be hoped that...(我们)希望/仍希望

It is mentioned that...据说

It is noticed /noted that...人们注意到/前面已经指出

It is proposed that...有人提议(指出)

It is recommended that...有人推荐

It is regarded that...人们认为

It is reported that...据报道

It is said that...据说

It is stressed that...人们强调说

It is supposed that...据推测;假定

It is thought that...有人认为

It is universally accepted that...普遍认为

It is well known that...众所周知

It must be admitted that...必须承认

It should be pointed out that...必须指出

It will be seen from it that...由此可见

如"是由…"、"是因…"、"是在…"等等。被动语态是表示一种状态时可以译成汉语的判断句型。

My first forty years were spent in Southern Europe.

译文:我的前四十年在南欧度过。

These machines are operated by a worker only.

译文:这些机器只由一名工人操纵。

(6)译成正常的被动句,以突出被动意义。

这不仅包括被字句,还包括汉语特有的表示被动的手段,如"受、被、叫、挨、让、给、遭、由、为、为…所…、把、加以、使"等等都可以表示被动意义。

In industry, natural materials difficult to get are often replaced by plastics.

译文:在工业中,不易获得的天然材料常常被塑料代替。

Over the years, tools and technology themselves as a source of fundamental innovation have largely been ignored by historians and philosophers of science.

译文:工具和技术本身作为根本性创新的源泉,多年来在很大程度上被历史学家和科学的思想家忽视了。

Problems should be resolved in good time.

译文:问题应该及时加以解决。

The Apollo Ⅻ crew reported that their spaceship was being followed by two UFOs.

译文:阿波罗十二号的宇航员曾报告说,它们的宇宙飞船正遭到两个不明飞行物的跟踪。(用"遭到")

For separating iron from the impurities the iron ore must be melted.

译文:为了使铁跟杂质分离,铁矿石必须经过冶炼。

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